Application Letter, Avoiding Repetition

V této kapitole probereme jak by měl vypadat motivační dopis v angličtině k žádosti o práci. Na co nesmíte zapomenout a jak se vyvarovat opakování výrazů.

Writing a Letter of Application

What is a letter of application?

Sometimes a potential employer requires a letter of application, also called a cover letter or a covering letter, to be sent or uploaded along with your CV. Such a letter introduces you, explains your purpose for writing, highlights a few of your skills, and requests an opportunity to meet personally with the potential employer. It is your introduction to the employer and you should take great care to write an impressive and effective letter. The letter of application (or a covering letter) not only reveals your accomplishments but also shows how well you can communicate and your ability to write correct English. Companies expect you to send in a word processed document unless specifically asked to write in handwriting.


How to write an impressive letter of application?

Your letter of application should point out why you should be invited for a personal interview. Keep the covering letter short, concise and relevant with a clear layout. Be brief and use specific examples to support your statements. The letter should be written on one page with plenty of white space.

The layout of a letter of application

  • Your address
  • Today's date (do not write in numbers only since number dates are written differently in British English and in American English: British English: 29 February 2004; American English: February 29, 2004
  • Employer's name, title, company's name, company's address (this should be the same as the addressee part on an envelope)
  • Reference number or code if known (you may find it in an advertisement or a previous letter); for example Your ref: 9876
  • Salutation in the following format:
If you know the person's name:
Dear Ms / Miss / Mrs / Mr / Dr + surname
Dear Mr Miller

You can also write the person's full name. In this case, leave out the title (Mr/Mrs). This way of writing the salutation is very handy if you don't know the gender of the person.
Dear Chris Miller

If you don't know the person's name, there are several possibilities to address people:
salutation when to use
Dear Sir - male addressee (British English)
Dear Madam - female addressee (British English)
Dear Sir or Madam - gender unknown (British English)
To Whom It May Concern - gender unknown (American English)

In British English, don't use any punctuation mark or use a comma:
Dear Mr Miller or Dear Mr Miller,
In American English, use a colon:
Dear Mr. Miller:

Ms, Miss or Mrs?
• Mrs - to address a married woman
• Miss - to address an unmarried woman (rarely used now)
• Ms - to address a woman whose marital status you don't know; also used to address an unmarried woman

Note: Abbreviations for Mister, Misses etc. are usually written without full stops (Mr) in British English and with full stops (Mr.) in American English.
  • First paragraph - why you are writing and which position you are applying for; where you have learned about the position; show you have done your research and write why you are interested in this company or position - this paragraph should be two or three sentences long
  • Second paragraph - why you are qualified for the position; write your most relevant qualifications, skills and qualities for the specific job position and support them with examples and previous work experience - this is usually the longest paragraph of the letter, therefore, you may break this paragraph into two if it looks lengthy or if your points work better in separate paragraphs; the last sentence summarizes your points and it is a good idea to mention the name of the company or desired position
  • Final paragraph - request a personal interview; refer to an enclosed CV; inform the interviewer what your next step is going to be (you will call in a few days); it is necessary to thank the interviewer for his or her time and consideration - this paragraph should be about two to four sentences long
  • Closing phrase
Use a comma after a closing phrase
• Yours sincerely, (British English, formal, for letters beginning Dear + name)
• Yours faithfully, (British English, formal, for letters beginning Dear Sir/Madam)
• Sincerely, (American English, formal)
  • Your signature
  • Your name - your first name and surname
  • Enclosure(s) - write what documents are enclosed; for example Enc: CV

What to avoid

To come up with experience, qualities and skills use your CV, but never reiterate passages from your CV word for word. Avoid using complicated sentences. Make sure your letter of application is not longer than three to six paragraphs. Do not use colloquial language and/or emoticons. 


Always check that you have spelled the employer's name or the company’s name correctly; spell-check the whole document. Do not leave any other errors.

Study this letter of application sample:

Jablůnková 28
602 00 Brno
Mobile: 123 456 789
12 April 2010
Ms Alena Fišerová
Great Language School
Hrušková 36 
602 00 Brno
Dear Ms Fišerová
I would like to be considered for the Director of Studies position offered at Great Language School. I learned of this opportunity through the Rovnost newspaper.
My academic and professional experience would make me a valuable asset to your company. As an Office Manager at Noname School of English, I was responsible for staff, coordinated scheduling, and evaluated the company’s performance. Being a teacher at Best Language School helped me understand what language instructors’ needs are in order to be effective and make students and clients satisfied. 
I believe that my excellent work ethics; strong interpersonal, organizational, and communication skills; and the ability to establish a solid rapport with people would make me an effective Director of Studies in Great Language School.
My CV is enclosed for your evaluation. I will contact you on the week of April 19th to arrange an interview at a time convenient to you, in which I would like to learn more about your needs, and discuss my ability to contribute to your goals. Thank you for your time and consideration.
Yours sincerely,

Tomáš Učitel
Tomáš Učitel



Avoiding Repetition

Avoiding repetition is important for the fluidity of your writing. When you continually repeat, your writing becomes hard to follow. If you can get creative with your words and phrases, your letter or email will be more interesting for your reader.

Tips for avoiding repetition:

  • Use pronouns to replace a person's or company's name as much as possible – you must introduce your writing with the names but then utilize pronouns such as he, she, it, they, them etc
  • Reread your article out loud, or listen to someone read it to you. That way you’ll catch the words and phrases that repeat too often.
  • Don't be afraid or ashamed to look up a word or a synonym in a dictionary, or from your Microsoft Word program (when using English spell check, right-click on the word you need a synonym for, and then follow an arrow next to the Synonyms. You can usually find a list of words you can replace your repeated word with.)

E.g. a very good idea > an admirable thought or an immense suggestion or an excellent proposal, etc.


kontrolní otázky

Kontrolní otázky...

  • In the first paragraph of your application letter you should
    • Yes, correct.
    • Incorrect.
  • You signature should include
    • Yes, correct.
    • Incorrect.


Seznam slovíček k lekci

purpose - účel  přehrát 
highlight - zvýraznit  přehrát 
skill - dovednost  přehrát 
request - žádat  přehrát 
take great care - dát si záležet   
impressive - působivý  přehrát 
reveal - odhalit  přehrát 
point out - zdůraznit  přehrát 
concise - stručný  přehrát 
layout - rozvržení  přehrát 
brief - stručný   
brief - krátký  přehrát 
support - podpořit  přehrát 
statement - výrok  přehrát 
research - průzkum  přehrát 
summarize - shrnout  přehrát 
desired - vytoužený  přehrát 
consideration - uvážení  přehrát 
enclose - přiložit  přehrát 
avoid - vyhnout se  přehrát 
reiterate - opakovat  přehrát 
colloquial - hovorový  přehrát 
emoticons - smajlíci   
error - chyba  přehrát 
valuable - hodnotný  přehrát 
asset - aktivum  přehrát 
asset - klad  přehrát 
asset - výhoda  přehrát 
asset - přínos  přehrát 
performance - výkon  přehrát 
establish - vybudovat  přehrát 
establish - zřídit  přehrát 
rapport - vztah  přehrát 
evaluation - hodnocení  přehrát 
evaluation - vyhodnocení  přehrát 
convenient - vhodný  přehrát 
convenient - pohodlný  přehrát 
contribute - přispět  přehrát 
fluidity - nestabilita  přehrát 
pronouns - zájmena  přehrát 
upload - načíst data v počítači   
request - vyžadovat   
accomplishment - dosažený úspěch   
layout - osnova   
lengthy - táhlý   
desired - chtěný   
consideration - zvážení   
error - hrubka   
valuable - přínosný   
arrange - dohodnout   

Vyzkoušet ze slovíček